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Youthful indiscretions



One bad apple really does spoil the barrel, according to a study in which Fred Malmstrom's military academy data was analyzed by former Air Force Academy economics professors, Scott Carrell (now at University of California, Davis) and civilian James West (Baylor University). The study, published in The Journal of Human Resources in 2008, concludes that "higher levels of peer cheaters result in an increased probability that an individual will cheat."

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